Altchek DW, Hyman J, Williams R, Levinson M, Allen AA, Palletta Jr. GA, Dines DM, and Botts JD. Management of MCL Injuries of the Elbow in Throwers. Techniques in Shoulder and Elbow Surgery 1:73-81, 2000.
Azar FM, Andrews JR, Wilk KE, and Groh D. Operative Treatment of Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injuries of the Elbow in Athletes. The American Journal of Sports Medicine 28:16-23, 2000.
Beasley, Robert W. Principles of Tendon Transfer. Orthopedic Clinics of North America 2:433-438, 1970.
Conway JE, Jobe FW, Glousman RE, and Pink M. Medial Instability of the Elbow in Throwing Athletes. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 74A:67-83, 1992.
Conway JE and Lowe WR. Elbow Medial Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction. Operative Techniques in Sports Medicine 9:196-204, 2001.
Dawkins, Jennifer. Tommy John Surgery. 10 May 2000. ESPN Training Room. 17 July 2001 <www.espn.go.com/trainingroom/s/2000/0315/427112.html>.
Ellenbecker TS, Mattalino AJ. The Elbow in Sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishing, 1997.
Fleisig GS, Andrews JR, Dillman CJ, and Escamilla MS. Kinetics of Baseball Pitching with Implications About Injury Mechanisms. The American Journal of Sports Medicine 23:233-239, 1995.
Greenfield, Jimmy and Rogers, Phil. Elbow Room. 24 February 2000. The Chicago Tribune. 9 September 2001 <www.chicagosports.com>.
Hechtman KS, Tjin-A-Tsoi EW, Zvijac JE, Uribe JW, and Latta LL. Biomechanics of a Less Invasive Procedure for Reconstruction of the Ulnar Collateral Ligament of the Elbow. The American Journal of Sports Medicine 26:620-624, 1998.
Hyman J, Breazeale NM, and Altchek DW. Valgus Instability of the Elbow in Athletes. Clinics in Sports Medicine 20:25-45, 2001.
Jobe FW, Stark H, and Lombardo SJ. Reconstruction of the Ulnar Collateral Ligament in Athletes. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 68A:1158-1163, 1986.
Malone, Terry R. Orthopedic and Sports Physical Therapy. St. Louis, MO: Mosby-Year, 1997.
Morrey BF, An K-N. Articular and Ligamentous Contributions to the Stability of the Elbow Joint. The American Journal of Sports Medicine 11:315-318, 1983.
Rettig AC, Sherrill C, Snead DS, Mendler JC, and Mieling P. Nonoperative Treatment of Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injuries in Throwing Athletes. The American Journal of Sports Medicine 29:15-17, 2001.
Rijke AM, Goitz HT, McCue FC, et al. Stress Radiography of the medial elbow ligaments. Radiology 191:213-216, 1994.
Rogers, Phil. Saving Careers with Tommy John Surgery. 24 February 2000. The Chicago Tribune. 9 September 2001 <www.chicagosports.com>.
Siegel, Ben. GWs Christie Comes Back from Tommy John Surgery. 2000. The GW Hatchet. 9 September 2001 <www.fansonly.com/channels/news/sports/m-basebl/uwire/041400abg/html>.
Singh H, Osbahr DC, Wickham MQ, Kirkendall DT, and Speer KP. Valgus Laxity of the Ulnar Collateral Ligament of the Elbow in Collegiate Athletes. The American Journal of Sports Medicine 29:558-561, 2001.
Smith GR, Altchek DW, Pagnani MJ, and Keeley JR. A Muscle-Splitting Approach to the Ulnar Collateral Ligament of the Elbow. The American Journal of Sports Medicine 24:575-580, 1996.
Spivak, Jeffery M. Orthopaedics: A Study Guide. New York City, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1999.
Thompson WH, Jobe FW, and Yocum LA, et al. Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Athletes: Muscle-Splitting Approach Without Transposition of the Ulnar Nerve. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery 10:152-157, 2001.
Timmerman LA, Schwartz ML, and Andrews JR. Preoperative Evaluation of the Ulnar Collateral Ligament by Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Tomography Arthrography. The American Journal of Sports Medicine 22:26-32, 1994.
Tommy John. 17 July 2001. <www.baseball-reference.com>.
Tommy John Statistics. 29 October 2001. ESPN. 29 October 2001 <www.espn.com>.
Wheeless Textbook of Orthopaedics. 2001. Wheeless Textbook of Orthopaedics. 9 September 2001. <www.medmedia.com/med.htm>.